Governmental policy and change such as customs and deportations have been evolving even those such as the Republican Party are swinging to expand limitation on immigration even though cheap immigrant labor had been a major element in the support of business backing and support for the parties. This book looks at historical reasons for the policies the United States. Race or lack of whiteness was large consideration for one of these blocks but also gender was a major limitation. The race was not such a major factor in later deportation as ideologies that events like the Red Scare bring about political and social stressors like the women Emma Goldman and Claudia Jones who publicly stand against political and economic policies. Discussion surrounding the prevention removal or return of immigrants and the reactions some have under the potential threat of deportation process is a large part of the discussion surrounding her topic. Variation such as voluntary repatriations and forced migration were part of this reaction and process of relocating. This reading goes into the government and legal sides including advocacy and agencies such as Immigration and Naturalization Services. She specifically addresses historiographical context bringing in familiar authors such as Vicoli and Handlin but also others such as Gutmann and Higham.
A large part of the Italian American identity is seen shaped in the food surrounding them this can be seen in media such as the movie The Godfather, Fatso, and Big Night. This surrounds the development of singular representations of taste within communities. This leads to all elements surrounding its creation, purchase, and the elements surrounding this cycle. The idea was shaped by the concept of the whole each Italian family eating but did not come originally from a national food base but rose for a novelty of new ingredients available. The society surrounding consumption solidified this identity surrounding these new foods by the end of the 1950‘s. This change is shaped by material and consumer cultures available in the 1920’s and thirties available to these immigrants enabling it to become such a focal point in the idea of family.
History began to change around the new millennium. Connectivity and ethics brought out debates over the status of historical knowledge. The truth about the past became a central issue as ideas of optimistic history and objective analysis in history evolved. Ethical problems evolved such as David Irvings case. This did not prevent the stage of history from being changed by the addition of the internet as a new resource. The ability to connect and store whole databases of resources helped spread this development. Other developments in the understanding of history off the page are changing stories for other media.
Asian products are brought to the United States but often spread along different routes then common migration patterns. This fact might be because of what was sold. Items that evokes a worldly sense that pushes a cosmopolitan and exotic idea along with these oriental items. The spread of these peddlers spread to many areas some under a seasonal occupation such as their support of the resort economy. When they do establish a more permanent presence they often set up a single house for the relatively small and tight community. This type of presence stretched down the coast and spreading into Texas. This perceived culture infiltrated events such as Mardi Gras and other yearly parades. This in part was part of the culture that was presented as part of songs and other media that were done as part of a “knowledge” of the Culture.
A Part and Apart identifies differences in “new” and “old” scholarship using ideas developed in the older works or using other fields to expound upon these studies which two of the four panelist discussed seemed to persist on one side or the other. Others mentioned the growth in the field in different ways as sch as propagation of some of the original ideas in the field surrounding the immigrants and ties to third “homelands” that Gjerde mentions. Lee goes onto discuss immigration, enthicity, and race shaped in Asian American such as “model minorities” or “probationary Americans” that roots of the beginning ties and later interactions whether in war or influx. Adam Goodman centers his ideas on migration to give a more complete view of history then a focus of immigration would allow. This is because migration of existing populations and other movements such as the forced migration of slavery do not fall into this immigration history.
Globalitation of migration histories seems that it is just another evolution in the way we look at the definition and description of the elements involved inherently to migration history. Evolution in terms such as disapora accentuate the weakening of the binational frameworks to change the meaning of the term global. The idea of transnationalism has also changed as these elements are being addressed, the “elastic labor frontiers, porous borders, the internationalization of production and the awesome mobility of capital” all lead to this evolution on the understanding of the application of these ideas. These ideas are all able to be analyzed based on the changes in economy and the utilization of new labor.
The first thing I noticed about the reading was the differentiation about the origin of the ethnic identity but this seemed irrelevant to the concept outside that it reflected the idea that the topic evolves.Change in perception of what it takes to assimilate evolved into new enterpretations on negative opinions about these identities. This lead to a number of ramifications that was not always dealt within the ethnic group. This and a focus on foriegness in the second reading serves to enhance the difference of race and enthnicity and results in questions about loyalty and ability to become a good and functioning part of society through assimilation.
Donna Gabaccia talks about the disparity in the development from women’s history in comparison to immigration history from its divergence in filiopietism and the grouping of communities in the developments of women’s history. In writings from Janet Nolan looks to the influence of women as immigrants and effects on the transatlantic history of the Irish. Their numbers in this venture make them a more noticeable in the changes their group represents and the outlier in the proportion compared to other immigrant groups and periods. This could be the changes to education and welfare. Both writers pick up elements of family in the development of identity and family. This can be seen in the money they send back or the interpretation of women’s roles within a family unit. This argument circles around the ideas of a patriarchy and the self-sacrifice of family. Women’s history is constantly evolving the interpretations are being shaped and illuminated by the stances and interests of the parties leading the search much like the way “voices” change in relation to how they see them selves.
A dualism of ethnicity or a sentiment of identifying where one comes from and celebrating it but this development in reference to antimodernism. This does not outshine the sentiment of being an American such as when Kennedy said “What the hell do I have to do to be called an American?” This idea of being an American also made some of those are wanting to be separated not by what they look like “white” but taking a separate identity of their ethnic background while not being bullied for it. “A certain tribalism has been antimodernism’s chosen idiom” overlaps greatly with this sentiment of wanting to be identified by where they came from as to those that created a reason to be blamed. This is in controversy of not being part of a group as the crimes because they alienate those trying to belong. The being part of the whole while being forced to stand out in separate groups, is a large part of the focus of the reading Hyphen Nation. This falls into much of the blame on crimes that are part of a political history but also on the rejection of the new that come in.
The discussion on immigration has evolved but impart it is only looking at different periods and the reactions these movements cause in those in the communities they join and those coming to join them. The original people that traversed the seas to come here with the mindset of emigration over immigration but once it began to be established with its own sense of identity the idea of why people where coming. This goes into the idea of national identity and “The Invention of Ethnicity in the United States.” The essay mentioned goes into how this creates alienation and a rejection of Americanization and because of this some people rejected these as a threat to the “Republic.” This lead to legislation that can be studied in the rejection surrounding of certain groups of immigrants and also limitation in the laws around the turn of the 20th century. Studies branched off into the specifics such as race and even gender. All of these elements shape the total image of the history of immigration in the United States but do not address as much to the outside reasons people need to leave their country outside of war, economic shift, and famine. The current state of immigrants both legal and illegal is able to be better understood because of the historiography surrounding the topic.